School & Recreation Rules

2016-2017 School & Recreation Rules

A. Glossary

Airborne: A type of skill performed free of contact with a person or the performing surface.

Assisted Inverted Floor Skill: An inverted participant on the performing surface that is partially supported by non-inverted participant(s) who is/are also on the performing surface.

Base: A person who is in direct contact with the performing surface and is supporting another person’s weight.

Basket Toss: A stunt in which a top person is tossed by bases whose hands are interlocked.

Bracer: A top person is connected to another top person.

Braced Flip/Roll: A pyramid in which the top person performs a hip-over-head rotation while in contact with bracers.

Chorus-line Flip: A stunt in which a participant on the performing surface performs a backwards flip while being supported by the connected arms of other participants.

Cradle: A dismount from a partner stunt, pyramid or toss in which the catch is completed below shoulder height by a base or bases with the top person in a face-up open-pike position.

Cupie/Awesome: A stunt in which both feet of the top person are in one hand of a base.

Dismount: Ending a stunt by releasing the top person to the performing surface or releasing to a cradle.

Dive Roll: A forward roll where the feet leave the ground before the hands reach the ground.

Downward Inversion: A stunt or pyramid in which an inverted top person’s center of gravity moves toward the performing surface.

Drop: Landing on the performance surface from an airborne position.

Elevator/Sponge Toss: A stunt in which the top person loads in to an elevator/sponge loading position and is then tossed into the air.

Extended Stunt: A stunt in which the entire body of the top person is extended in an upright position over the base(s). Chairs, torches, flatbacks and straddle lifts are examples of stunts where the bases’ arms are extended overhead, but are NOT considered to be extended stunts since the height of the body of the top person is similar to a shoulder level stunt.

Extended Position: A position in which the supporting hand(s) of the base is above the head.

Flatback: A stunt in which a top person is held in a face-up or face-down, horizontal position, with their hips and shoulders in alignment.

Flip: An airborne skill involving foot-over-head rotation in a tuck, pike or layout position.

Foldover Stunt: An inverted stunt in which the top person bends at the waist and is caught on his/her back by multiple catchers while one or both of the top person’s ankles/feet remain in the grip of the base(s) (e.g., yo-yo, pancake, etc.)

Handstand: An inverted position in which the arms are extended beside the head and the hips are directly over the head and shoulders.

Hanging Pyramid: A pyramid in which the top person’s weight is primarily supported by another top person. Examples of hanging pyramids are: a person being suspended between two shoulder stands; a “whirlybird” stunt where one person’s weight is being supported by the legs of a top person in a shoulder sit; and a “diamond head” where two persons are suspended from one shoulder stand.

Helicopter: A stunt in which the top person is tossed into the air in a horizontal position and rotates parallel to the ground in the same motion as a helicopter blade.

Inverted: A body position where the shoulders are below the waist.

Layout Position: A straight-body position.

Leapfrog: A stunt in which the top person moves over a front or back post while maintaining hands-to-hands contact with the post; or, a skill in which a participant on the floor places hands on the back of another person on the floor, vaults over his/her back in a straddle and returns to the floor.

Liberty: A one-leg stunt (usually extended) that may include variations such as a hitch, torch, heel stretch, arabesque, scorpion, etc.

Loading Position: Bases support a non-extended top person under the foot/feet in preparation for a stunt or toss.

Log Roll: A top person in a horizontal position or cradle is popped then twists parallel to the performing surface before being caught by the original base(s) in a horizontal position or a cradle.

Non-release Stunt: A stunt in which contact is maintained between a top person and base(s).

Non-release transition: A top person is moved from one stunt to another while maintaining physical contact with original base(s), new base(s) or a post.

Open-Pike Position: Legs are straight and hips are bent approximately halfway between a full pike position and a full layout position.

Pike Position: Bent at the hips with legs straight and together.

Pitch: A toss in which the base(s) push upward on a single foot or leg of the top person.

Pop: A controlled upward release by the base(s) to initiate a dismount or a release transition.

Post: A person on the performing surface who may assist a top person during a stunt or transition.

Prep: A stunt in which one or more bases hold a standing top person at approximately shoulder height.

Prep Level: When a top person’s base of support is at approximately shoulder height.

Primary Support: Bearing the majority of a top person’s weight during the execution of a partner stunt, pyramid, cradle dismount or the initiation of a toss.

Prone Position: Face-down straight body.

Prop: Any object which can be manipulated or used as a base (ex: poms, signs, flags, megaphones, etc.)

Pyramid: Connected partner stunts.

Quick Toss/Partner Toss: A release technique that begins with the top person having both feet on the ground, and ends in a partner stunt or pyramid. The base(s) can apply an upward force on any part of the body other than under the feet. Quick Toss is the common term when multiple bases are used.

Released Pyramid Transition: A pyramid transition in which the top person is connected to a bracer while being released from their bases before being caught in a cradle, stunt or loading position.

Release Stunt: A transition from one stunt to another stunt (including loading positions) in which the top person becomes free from all bases, posts and spotters.

Roll: A hip-over-head rotation that is executed either on the performing surface or in a partner stunt in which the top person is in contact with a person the ground.

Side T-lift: A stunt in which the base(s) extend(s) a top person overhead in a forward-facing, horizontal straight-body position.

Split Position: Legs extended in opposite directions at right angles to the trunk.

Sponge: The base(s) absorb(s) a top person’s downward momentum to push/lift the top person into position for the next stunt/skill.

Spotter: A person who is responsible for assisting or catching the top person in a partner stunt or pyramid.

Straddle Position: Bent at the hips with legs straight and apart.

Stunt/Partner Stunt: One or more persons supporting one or more top persons off of the ground.

Suspended Roll: A stunt in which one or more upright bases or posts hold a top person’s hand(s)/arm(s) while the top person performs continuous hip-over-head rotation.

Suspended Splits: A top person is supported in a split position between multiple bases.

Swan Dive: A top person is released by base(s) or leaves the supporting surface of a prop and is caught in a prone position.

Swedish Fall: An extended stunt in which the top person in a prone position supports her own upper body by placing her hands on the shoulders of a base while her lower body is supported by another base’s extended arms.

Swinging Stunt: A top person is suspended and swung between multiple bases.

Switch Liberty: A stunt in which the top person begins with one foot on the performing surface, is released from the bases, then lands in a stunt on the other foot.

Tension Drop: A dismount from a stunt or pyramid where the top person(s) are directed toward the ground while their feet are held by the base(s) until just before the landing.

Tick-Tock: A stunt that is held in a static position on one leg, the base(s) takes a downward dip and release the top person as the top person switches the weight to the other leg and lands in a static position on the opposite leg. The dip may or may not pass through prep level before release.

Top Person: A person who is not in contact with the performing surface and is being supported or stabilized by another person or has been tossed into the air.

Toss: A release stunt in which the base(s) begin underneath the top person’s foot/feet, execute a throwing motion from below shoulder level to increase the height of the top person and the top person becomes free from all bases, spotters, posts or bracers.

Tuck Position: Bent at the hips and knees with knees drawn toward the torso.

Tumbling: Gymnastic skills that begin and end on the performing surface, including rolls, inverted extended skills (cartwheels, handstands, walkovers, handsprings, etc.), aerials, twists and flips. NOTE: Jumps, leaps and side rolls on the performing surface are not considered to be tumbling.

Twist: An airborne skill involving rotation perpendicular or parallel to the performing surface in a straight body position.

B. General

  1. These rules are to be in effect for all practices, games, competitions and other performances.
  2. Cheerleading squads should be placed under the direction of a qualified and knowledgeable coach.
  3. All practice sessions should be supervised by the coach and held in a location suitable for the activities of cheerleaders (i.e., use of appropriate mats, away from excessive noise and distractions, etc.).
  4. Coaches should recognize a squad’s particular ability level and should limit the squad’s activities accordingly. “Ability level” refers to the squad’s talents as a whole and individuals should not be pressed to perform activities until safely perfected.
  5. All cheerleaders should receive proper training before attempting any form of cheerleading gymnastics (tumbling, partner stunts, pyramids and jumps).
  6. Professional training in proper spotting techniques should be mandatory for all squads.
  7. All cheerleading squads should adopt a comprehensive conditioning and strength-building program.
  8. An appropriate warm-up routine should precede all cheerleading activities.
  9. Prior to the performance of any skill, the immediate environment for the activity should be taken into consideration including, but not limited to proximity of non-squad personnel, performance surface, lighting and/or precipitation. Technical skills should not be performed on concrete, asphalt, wet or uneven surfaces or surfaces with obstructions.
  10. Programs should qualify cheerleaders according to generally accepted teaching progressions. Appropriate spotting should be used until all performers demonstrate mastery of the skill.
  11. All jewelry is prohibited during participation. Religious medals and medical medals are not considered to be jewelry. A religious medal without a chain must be taped and worn under the uniform. A medical alert medal must be taped and may be visible.
  12. Supports, braces and soft casts which are unaltered from the manufacturer’s original design/production do not require any additional padding. Supports/braces and supports/braces that have been altered from the manufacturer’s original design/production must be padded with a closed-cell, slow-recovery foam padding no less than one-half inch thick if the participant is involved in partner stunts, pyramids or tosses. A participant wearing a plaster cast or a walking boot must not be involved in partner stunts, pyramids or tosses.
  13. Squad members must wear athletic shoes (no gymnastic slippers).
  14. When discarding props (signs, etc.) that are made of solid material or have sharp edges/corners, team members must gently toss or place the props so that they are under control.
  15. The use of mini-trampolines, and springboards are prohibited for competition or performance.
  16. Participants must not chew gum or have candy in their mouths during practice or performance.
  17. A participant who is bleeding, has an open wound, has any amount of blood on his/her uniform, or has blood on his/her person, shall be directed to leave the activity until the bleeding is stopped, the wound is covered, the uniform and/or body is appropriately cleaned.
  18. A participant, coach, substitute, trainer or other team attendant must not commit an unsporting act. This includes, but is not limited to, acts or conduct such as:
    1. Disrespectfully addressing or contacting an official or gesturing in such a manner as to indicate resentment.
    2. Using profane or inappropriate language, music or gestures.
    3. Baiting or taunting an opponent.
  19. A participant, coach, substitute, trainer or other team attendant must not use tobacco, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, or other controlled substances while representing the school.
  20. A participant (mascot) in a full head and/or body costume must not stunt or tumble, except for a forward roll or cartwheel.
  21. When the athlete is standing at attention, apparel must cover the midriff.

C. Partner Stunts

  1. Partner stunts (free-standing or as part of a pyramid) higher than shoulder stand level must have a separate, continuous spotter for each person over shoulder stand level.
    1. Except the following: Chair, Russian lift, Torch, Double-base split catch, Triple-base flatback, Triple-base suspended splits, Triple-base stunts in which the top person is horizontal, Double-base vertical T-lift, Triple-bas Swedish Fall, Triple-base straddle sit provided the top person has both hands in contact with a post.
  2. The bases of any extended stunt must have both feet in direct weight-bearing contact with the performing surface.
  3. Bases may not:
    1. Hold any objects in a hand that is supporting the top person.
    2. Assume a backbend, handstand or headstand position.
  4. A spotter is required for single base shoulder level stunts in which the feet of the top person are in the hand(s) of the base.
  5. In stunts requiring a spotter, a spotter:
    1. Cannot provide primary support for a top person. Primary support means the majority of the top person’s weight.
    2. Must be in a position to protect the top person’s head, neck and shoulders when coming off a stunt or pyramid or landing in a cradle. In most stunts this is behind or beside the top person.
    3. Spotters must have their attention focused on the top person. Momentarily looking away in order to assess environmental safety factors (poms, signs, another stunt, etc.) is allowed as long as their focus returns to the top person.
    4. May not have their hands behind their back.
    5. May not support under the heel or sole of the top person’s foot in a single based extended stunt. They may hold at the ankle of the top person and/or the wrist of the base or any combination thereof.
    6. May not hold any objects in their hands.
  6. In all Quick Tosses and Partner Tosses the following rules apply:
    1. No one can apply force under the foot. If force is applied under the foot and there is a release, the rules in the “Tosses” section apply.
      1. Exception: A switch liberty is permitted.
    2. If landing on the ground, a catcher must control the top person back to the ground and the top person must land with at least one foot on the ground.
    3. If landing in a cradle, one additional catcher is required.The top person cannot travel over or under another person.
    4. The top person cannot be caught in a single base horizontal position.
    5. The top person cannot be caught under the legs in a split or straddle position in a stunt shoulder height or above.
    6. The toss does not significantly exceed the height of the intended stunt.
  7. The total number of twists in a dismount from a stunt cannot be greater than 1 1/4 rotations.
  8. Partner stunts and pyramids may not pass over, under or through other partner stunts or pyramids.
  9. Cradle dismounts from partner stunts or pyramids shoulder height or above to the original base(s) require an additional spotter in position to protect the head, neck and shoulders of the top person.
  10. In all dismounts to catchers who are not the original bases, the following conditions must be met:
    1. The top person must be cradled by two catchers and a head-and-shoulders spotter/catcher.
    2. The new catchers must remain close to the original bases.
    3. The new catchers must be in place and not involved in any other skill when the release is initiated.
    4. The top person may not perform any skill (twist, toe touch, etc.) following the release.
  11. In all cradle dismounts –
    1. The base(s)/catcher(s) must have continuous visual contact with the top person.
    2. The top person must not hold props that are made of hard material or have corners or sharp edges.
    3. The bases/catchers must not move during dismounts except as necessary for safety adjustments.
      1. Exception: The bases may make a ¼ turn to catch a cradle.
    4. From multi-base stunts must have at least 2 bases/catchers and an additional head and shoulders catcher/spotter.
    5. From single-base stunts to single-base cradles must have an additional catcher/spotter who is responsible for the head-and-shoulder area of the top person.
      1. Exception: An additional catcher/spotter is not required when cradling a chair or torch.
  12. Unless listed below, a Release Stunt must either be cradled or connected to at least one bracer.
    1. Helicopters are allowed provided all of the following conditions are met:
      1. The top person makes no more than a 180 degree rotation (half-turn).
      2. Four bases must be in position during the entire release.
      3. There must be a base at the head/shoulder area during the initiation of the toss as well as the catch.
      4. The bases are not allowed to change positions during the release.
      5. The top person must begin and end in a face up position.
      6. The top person cannot perform a twisting skill.
    2. A log roll is legal provided it does not involve more than one complete rotation and the top person is not in contact with a person in a release stunt.
      1. In a single-base log roll, the top person must rotate toward the base and begin and end in a face-up position.
      2. In a multi-base log roll, the top person may begin and end in a face-up or face-down position.
    3. A top person in a vertical position at prep level may be released to a stunt at any level provided the top person remains vertical, and the top person performs no more than 1 ¼ twisting rotations.
    4. A top person in a horizontal position shoulder height or below or in a cradle may be released to a loading position or stunt shoulder height or below.
    5. Legal inversion releases under Rule D.
  13. Non-braced suspended splits in a transition are allowed provided all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The top person must have both hands in continuous contact with a post or with both bases’ hands or,
    2. When transitioning to the split without continuous hand-to-hand contact:
      1. There are a total of three bases that support the top person.
      2. At least two of the bases must support under the legs of the top person. The third base may support under the legs or make contact with the hands of the top person.
      3. The top person must have both hands in contact with bases during the split portion of the transition.
  14. Extended Straddle Lifts must have an additional spotter for the head and shoulders of the top person (similar position to a Double-Based Elevator/Extension Prep).
  15. Single-based stunts in which the top person is parallel to the performing surface and the bases’ arms are extended must have a continuous spotter at the head and shoulder of the top person. (I.e. Bird, Side T, Single-Based Flatback, etc.)
  16. A top person may be moved from a vertical position to a face up or face down horizontal position (straight body or cradle) provided all the following conditions are met:
    1. The top person maintains contact with at least one original base or spotter.
    2. At least two catchers and/or bases catch the upper body of the top person.
    3. The catchers must be to the side or front of the person(s) moving the top person.
    4. When the catchers are not the original bases, they remain close to the original bases and must be in place prior to the movement to the horizontal position.
    5. When the catchers are not the original bases and the top person begins or passes through an extended overhead position, at least three catchers are required.
  17. A single-base may not be the only primary support for two extended top persons. The exception to this rule is the following:
    1. Double Cupies/Awesomes are allowed. If dismounted to cradles, there must be three people for each top person being cradled.
  18. Dismounts to the performing surface from shoulder height or above must have assisted landings. If the dismount involves a skill (e.g. toe touch, twist, etc.) two bases or a base and spotter must be in position to assist the top person, but only one is required to assist the top person. This assistance must be sufficient to slow the momentum of the top person.
  19. A swinging stunt is legal provided all the following conditions are met:
    1. A downward movement is only allowed from below shoulder height.
    2. The top person is face up.
    3. The top person begins from the performing surface or a stunt that is below shoulder height.
  20. A top person must not be in a face down suspended position between bases in which the top person’s torso is suspended below the arms and legs.
  21. Single-based split catches are prohibited.
  22. Tension drops are prohibited.
  23. In non-release transitions in which the top person is moved to new base(s), all the following conditions must be met throughout the transition:
    1. The top person maintains physical contact with the original base(s) or a post until establishing contact with the new base(s).
    2. The person moving the top person does not turn more than 180 degrees (half turn) to face the new bases.
    3. The new base(s) are to the side or front of the person moving the top person except when the top person remains vertical.
      1. Exception: A backward leapfrog to a prone position is permitted provided there are at least two catchers and the top person maintains continuous hands-to-hands contact with the post throughout the transition. The original bases, post and catches must remain stationary.
  24. A top person must not be in an inverted position except as allowed in Section D. Inversions.

D. Inversions

Note: Inversions are partner stunts or pyramids in which the top person has her or his shoulders below the waist. In addition to the following rules, all persons involved in an inversion must follow all rules from the Partner Stunt and Pyramid sections.

  1. Unless allowed under the rules in this section, a top person must not be in an inverted position.
  2. An inverted top person may pass through an extended position, but must not begin, end, pause, or stop in a static extended inverted position.
  3. Suspended rolls are permitted provided:
    1. Two people on the performing surface control the top person in suspended forward or backward rolls with continuous hand-to-hand/arm contact to a stunt, two person cradle, loading position or the performing surface.
    2. A single base or post controls the top person with continuous hand-to-hand/arm contact to a stunt, two person cradle, loading position or the performing surface.
    3. A single base/post suspended roll that ends on the performing surface requires a spotter.
    4. If caught in a cradle, load, or stunt, the new catchers must be in place and may not be involved with any other skill when the suspended roll is initiated.
    5. The feet/ankles of the top person are released.
  4. Braced inversions in a pyramid that do not flip are allowed provided the following conditions are met:
    1. Braced inversions that release must follow the Release Pyramid Transition rule E-7.
      1. NOTE: Braced inversions that do not release are treated just like any other non-released braced stunt and must follow the Pyramid rules E1-E5. Braced rolls are now in this category.
  5. Braced flips in a pyramid are allowed provided all the following conditions are met:
    1. The top person begins in a multi-base loading position, stunt, cradle or on the performing surface.
    2. The top person does not begin in an extended inverted position.
    3. The top person maintains continuous hand-to-hand/arm contact with two bracers. The top person cannot be behind the bracers.
    4. The bracers are in double base preps with a spotter.
    5. The top person is between or in front of the bracers.
    6. At least three catchers (one base and two spotters or two bases and one spotter) who were the original bases/spotters catch the top person in a loading position, stunt or cradle, or assist the top person to the performing surface. If the flip ends in a cradle, the bracers may release the top person once she/he begins to descend and is no longer inverted.
    7. The top person ends in a non-inverted position.
    8. The top person does not perform more than one and one quarter (1¼) flipping rotations and no more than one half (1/2) twist.
    9. The bases/catchers remain stationary except as necessary for safety adjustments.
  6. In all other inversions:
    1. An inverted top person is allowed to pass through an extended position, but must not pause or stop while extended.
    2. Static inversions at prep level require two bases or a base and spotter. The spotter is not required to be in contact with the top person.
    3. A release transition from a static inverted position to a non-inverted position is allowed provided all of the following conditions are met:
      1. The top person lands at or below prep level.
      2. The top person does not twist more than ¼ rotation.
      3. There is a spotter.
    4. In inversions where the base of support begins and remains below prep level:
      1. At least one base or spotter must be in a position to protect the head/neck of the top person.
      2. The base or spotter maintains contact with the top person’s upper body (waist and above, including arms/hands) until the top person is no longer inverted or her/his hands are on the performing surface. The contact must be sufficient to stabilize/control the top person’s position.
    5. In inversions where the base of support begins at or passes through prep level:
      1. At least two people on the performing surface must be in a position to protect the head/neck of the top person.
      2. The bases/spotters must maintain contact with the top person’s upper body (waist and above, including arms/hands) until the top person is no longer inverted or his/her hands are on the performing surface. The contact must be sufficient to stabilize/control the top person’s position. Exception: In a foldover stunt, the top person may initiate the inversion without upper body contact.
      3. The top person must not go directly to an inverted position on the performance surface from shoulder height or above.
    6. When the stunt begins in an inversion and goes to a non-inverted position, the upper body contact may be released before the top person is no longer inverted.
    7. Dismounts from inverted stunts to a cradle or an upright position on the performing surface are allowed provided the top person begins in a static or “pump and go” position (i.e., handstand) and does no more than ¼ turn. Dismounts to the performing surface from shoulder height or above must follow Rule C-18.
  7. An inverted top person must not hold objects (poms, signs, etc.) in his/her hands. Exception: During a transition from an inverted position on the performing surface to a non-inverted stunt, a top person can hold objects.

E. Pyramids

Note: In addition to these specific pyramid rules, all persons and stunts involved in a pyramid must follow all rules from the Partner Stunt and Inversion sections.

  1. The top person in a pyramid must receive primary support from a base or be connected to a bracer who is on a base.
  2. A bracer may not support a majority of a top person’s weight.
  3. In pyramids where one static extended stunt braces another static extended stunt, the connection must be hand/arm to hand/arm.
  4. Partner stunts and pyramids may not pass over, under or through other partner stunts or pyramids.
  5. If a person in a pyramid is used as a brace for an extended stunt, that brace must not be supporting a majority of the top person’s weight. (To demonstrate this, the foot of the top person’s braced leg must be at or above the knee of their supporting leg.)
  6. A hanging pyramid is legal provided all the following conditions are met:
    1. Base(s) remain stationary and maintain(s) constant contact with the suspended top person. Hanging pyramids are not allowed to rotate.
    2. Spotters are present for each shoulder stand.
    3. Suspended top person is lower than the shoulder stand(s) with feet hanging free.
    4. Suspended top person does not rotate on the dismount.
  7. In a Released Pyramid Transition the following rules apply:
    1. The skills before and after the release must be legal, including the required spotters.
    2. The top person must be in hand/arm to hand/arm contact with at least one bracer during the entire transition.
    3. The top person and each bracer must have a separate spotter.
      1. Exception: Bracers in shoulder sits and thigh stands do not require a spotter.
    4. The top person may not be supporting his or her weight on any other body part of the person(s) assisting (i.e. Shoulders of the bracer).
    5. The released top person and bases make no more than a ¼ turn around the bracer in a continuous movement in which the top person remains above the original base(s). The top person must be continuous in motion and cannot be supported so that they pause during the transition.
    6. The top person must be caught by original bases.
    7. The top person may not be supporting his or her weight on any other body part of the person(s) assisting (i.e. Shoulders of the bracer).
  8. Braced inversions in Pyramid must follow Section D. Inversion rules.

F. Tosses

(The rules in this section only apply to tosses where someone is under a foot)

  1. In all single-based tosses that land in a stunt all of the following rules apply:
    1. The top person must land on the original base.
    2. The toss may not be directed so that the base must travel to catch the top person.
    3. The top person cannot travel over or under another person.
    4. The top person cannot be caught in a prone position.
  2. In all single-based tosses that land in a loading position or return to the performing surface all of the following rules apply:
    1. Must be caught by the original base and a spotter who must be in position to protect the head, neck and shoulders.
    2. The toss may not be directed so that the base must travel to catch the top person.
    3. The top person cannot travel over or under another person.
    4. The top person cannot be caught in a prone position.
  3. In all single-based tosses to a cradle all of the following rules apply:
    1. Must be caught by at least three catchers that include the original base, one of whom must be at the head and shoulders.
    2. The toss may not be directed so that the base must travel to catch the top person.
    3. The top person may not hold any objects (poms, signs, etc.) during the toss.
    4. The top person cannot travel over or under another person.
    5. The top person cannot perform any skill (twist, toe touch, ball-up, etc.) during the toss.
  4. In all multi-based tosses to a cradle the following rules apply:
    1. No more than four tossers are allowed.
    2. Must be caught by at least three of the original tossers, one of whom must be at the head and shoulders.
    3. The toss may not be directed so that the bases must travel to catch the top person.
    4. The top person may not hold any objects (poms, signs, etc.) during the toss.
    5. The top person cannot travel over or under another person.
    6. The total number of twists cannot be greater than one and one quarter rotations.
  5. In multi-based tosses that land in a stunt or loading position the following rules apply:
    1. The top person must begin with both feet on the ground. The bases can apply an upward force on any part of the body other than under the foot. The exception to this rule is the following:
      1. Switch Liberties are allowed.
    2. The top person must be caught by at least two of the original tossers and a spotter who must be in position to protect the head, neck and shoulders.
    3. The toss may not be directed so that the bases must travel to catch the top person.
    4. The maximum distance allowed between the highest point of the base and the lowest point of a top person’s body cannot exceed approximately twelve inches.
    5. The top person cannot travel over or under another person.
    6. The top person cannot be caught in a prone position.
    7. The top person may not land in a basket toss loading position.

G. Tumbling and Jumps

  1. Dive rolls are prohibited.
  2. Flips greater than one rotation are prohibited.
  3. Twists greater than one rotation are prohibited.
  4. A forward three-quarter flip to the seat or knees is prohibited.
  5. Tumbling or rebounding over or under a stunt, person or prop is illegal with the exception of non-airborne tumbling over a person or prop on the performing surface. (Cartwheels, rolls and walkovers with poms or over a person are allowed. Back handsprings and tucks with poms are prohibited.)
  6. A flip that lands in a partner stunt or cradle is prohibited. (Example: A back flip from a tumbling pass into a cradle is prohibited. However, rebounding from a back handspring into a cradle is allowed.)
  7. Landings for all jumps must bear weight on at least one foot. (Example: A toe touch jump to the seat, knees, or landing with both feet back, or to a push-up position are prohibited.)
  8. Knee drops are prohibited without first bearing weight on the hands.
  9. Drops to a prone position (i.e. push-up) on the performing surface are illegal.
  10. Airborne skills without hip over-head rotation may not jump from a standing or squatting position backwards onto your neck, shoulders and hands. (This rule refers to a type of entrance into a rubberband.)

H. Additional Restrictions for Elementary, Middle and Junior High School

The following restriction for elementary, middle school and junior high teams is in addition to the above rules for high school teams:

  1. Basket tosses, elevator tosses and similar multi-based tosses are prohibited.

INTERMEDIATE

Intermediate School & Recreation Division Restrictions

  1. Standing Tumbling
    1. Onodi’s are not allowed.
    2. Flipping skills with or without twisting are not allowed. (ex. Front or Back tucks/pikes/layouts/whips/fulls)
  2. Running Tumbling
    1. Flipping skills may only be performed in a tuck position and may only be performed if immediately preceded by a round-off or round-off back handspring entry. (Cartwheel entries are not allowed).
      1. Flipping skills may not be immediately performed after a front handspring.
    2. No tumbling is allowed after the flipping skill, with the exception of a forward or backward roll.
    3. Tumbling skills are allowed up to 1 flipping and 0 twisting rotations.
    4. Aerial walkovers are not allowed. (Aerial Cartwheels are allowed.)
  3. Stunts
    1. Twisting transitions to and from an extended position may not exceed ½ twisting rotation.
    2. Twisting transitions to and from prep level may not exceed 1 twisting rotation.
    3. Release moves are only allowed when the top person begins at waist level or below and transitions to prep level or below.
    4. Downward inversions are only allowed from waist level.
  4. Pyramids
    1. During a pyramid transition in which the top person is released from the bases, a top person may pass above 2 persons high while in direct contact with two different top persons at prep level or below. Bracers cannot hold onto the same arm of the flyer. Contact must be maintained with the same bracers throughout the entire transition. Contact must be made with a base(s) on the performing surface BEFORE contact with the bracer is lost.
    2. Braced rolls are allowed.
    3. Braced flips are not allowed. A top person may not pass through an inverted position during a pyramid transition when released from bases.
  5. Dismounts
    1. Only straight pop downs, basic straight rides, and ¼ turns are allowed from any single leg stunt.
    2. Up to 1¼ twists are allowed from any two leg stunt.
  6. Tosses
    1. Up to 1 trick allowed during a toss.
    2. Tosses may not exceed 1 twisting rotation. During a twisting toss, no skill other than the twist is allowed.

NOVICE

Novice School & Recreation Division Restrictions

  1. Standing Tumbling
    1. Onodi’s are not allowed.
    2. Flipping skills with or without twisting are not allowed. (ex. Front or Back tucks/pikes/layouts/whips/fulls)
    3. Series front and back handsprings are not allowed.
    4. Jump skills in immediate combination with handspring(s) is not allowed.
  2. Running Tumbling
    1. Flips and aerials are not allowed.
    2. No twisting while airborne.
      1. Exception: Round offs are allowed.
  3. Stunts
    1. Single leg stunts above prep level are not allowed.
    2. Transitions may not exceed ½ twisting rotation by the top person in relation to the performance surface.
    3. Release moves are not allowed.
      1. Exception: Barrel Roll
    4. Transitions from ground level inversions to non-inverted stunts are allowed. Inversions off of the ground and downward inversions are not allowed.
  4. Pyramids
    1. Extended single leg stunts must be braced by a top person at prep level or below with hand/arm connection only. The connection must be made prior to initiating the extended single leg stunt, and the bracer must have both feet in the bases hands.
    2. Transitions may not exceed ½ twisting rotation by the top person in relation to the performance surface.
    3. Release moves are not allowed.
      1. Exception: Barrel Roll
    4. Transitions from ground level inversions to non-inverted stunts are allowed. Inversions off of the ground and downward inversions are not allowed.
  5. Dismounts
    1. Only straight pop downs, basic straight rides, and ¼ turns are allowed from any stunt.
  6. Tosses
    1. Straight Ride Toss is only allowed. (Top person may use different arm variations, but must keep legs and body in the straight ride position.)